|By Clive Cook||
|December 10, 2009 04:00 PM EST||
CIOs and IT managers agree that memory is emerging as a critical resource constraint in the data center for both economic and operational reasons. Regardless of density, memory is not a shareable resource across the data center. In fact, new servers are often purchased to increase memory capacity, rather than to add compute power. While storage capacity and CPU performance have advanced geometrically over time, memory density and storage performance have not kept pace. Data center architects refresh servers every few years, over-provision memory and storage, and are forced to bear the costs of the associated space, power and management overhead. The result of this inefficiency has been high data center costs with marginal performance improvement.
Memory: Where Are We?
Business-critical applications demand high performance from all network resources to derive value out of the ever-increasing volume of data. Memory is one of the three key computing resources, along with CPU and storage, which determine overall data center performance. However, memory has lagged far behind the advances of both processors and storage in capacity, price, and performance ratios. While processor vendors assert that data centers are processor-bound and storage vendors imply that data centers are storage-bound, in many cases the true performance barrier is memory. To that end, both a major network vendor and a dominant server vendor have recently made announcements about dramatic increases in the memory footprint of servers to better support data center virtualization.
The major network vendor built their first-ever blade server with custom developed hardware to support a larger memory footprint (up to 384 GB) for one dual-processor blade. This is significantly larger than the 144 GB maximum that is typical in high-end systems. The dominant server vendor enables individual VMs to use more of the local system memory.
Memory constraints continue to impact application performance for a number of industries. For example, data for seismic processing of oil and gas extraction, flight and reservation information, or business analytics quickly add up to terabytes, much too large to fit in even large-scale (and expensive) local RAM. These growing data sets create huge performance slowdowns in applications where latency and throughput matter. Multi-core processors are underutilized, waiting for data they can't get fast enough. And, currently available solutions are inefficient and don't entirely solve the problem.
Latency, or the delay in delivering the initial piece of data, is critical to application performance in areas such as manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, energy, and capital markets. As an example, algorithmic traders can execute hundreds of thousands of trades per day. Twenty-five percent of securities trades are now algorithmic trades - trades initiated by computers in response to market conditions or trading in patterns and sequences that generate profits. These trades leverage trade execution speed to make money, and it's a race to performance. The fastest trading desks will profit most.
Alongside the significant impact of peak performance is the need for certified messaging. Trading data streams must be certified - reliably stored for record keeping and rollback. Current solutions to the trading message problem are difficult to integrate, expensive, and cannot meet the performance requirements of the algorithmic trading desk.
A leading vendor's message bus solution has transaction latencies in the millisecond range, and reaches maximum throughput at close to 5,000 transactions per second. This performance hampers algorithmic trading, and throughput is not enough to meet the peak trading volumes at the opening bell, closing bell, or during market-moving events.
Memory Virtualization - Breaking the Memory Barrier
The introduction of memory virtualization shatters a long-standing and tolerated assumption in data processing - that servers are restricted to the memory that is physically installed. Until now, the data center has been primarily focused on server virtualization and storage virtualization.
Memory virtualization is the key to overcoming physical memory limitations, a common bottleneck in information technology performance. This technology allows servers in the data center to share a common, aggregated pool of memory that lives between the application and operating system. Memory virtualization is logically decoupled from local physical machines and made available to any connected computer as a global network resource.
This technology dramatically changes the price and performance model of the data center by bringing the performance benefits of resource virtualization, while reducing infrastructure costs.
In addition, it eliminates the need for changes to applications in order to take advantage of the pool. This creates a very large memory resource that is much faster than local or networked storage.
Memory virtualization scales across commodity hardware, takes advantage of existing data center equipment, and is implemented without application changes to deliver unmatched transactional throughput. High-performance computing now exists in the enterprise data center on commodity equipment, reducing capital and operational costs.
Memory Virtualization in Action - Large Working Data Set Applications
Memory virtualization reduces hundreds to thousands of reads from storage or databases to one, by making frequently read data available in a cache of virtualized memory with microsecond access speeds. This decreases reliance on expensive load balancers and allows servers to perform optimally even with simple, inexpensive round-robin load balancing by linking into common file system calls or application-level API integration. Any server may contribute RAM into the cache by using a command-line interface or a configuration and management dashboard that sets up and controls the virtualized memory pool through a web-based user interface. Memory virtualization then uses native high-speed fabric integration to move data rapidly between servers.
For applications with large working data sets, larger than will fit in physical memory, such as those found in high-volume Internet, predictive analytics, HPC and oil and gas, memory virtualization brings faster results and improves end-user experiences. In capital markets, memory virtualization delivers the lowest trade execution latencies, includes certified messaging, and integrates simply as demanded in this competitive market.
The associated performance gains relative to traditional storage are huge. NWChem is a computational chemistry application typically deployed in an HPC environment. In a 4 node cluster with a 4 GB / node running NWChem, memory virtualization cut the test run time from 17 minutes down to 6 minutes 15 seconds with no additional hardware, simply by creating an 8 GB cache with 2 GB contributed from each node.
Alternatives Fall Short
Attempts to address these challenges include scaling out (adding servers), over-provisioning (adding more storage or memory than is needed), scaling up (adding memory to existing or larger servers), or even designing software around the current constraints.
Larger data centers draw more power and require more IT staff and maintenance. For example, a 16-server data center with 32 GB RAM/server costs $190,000 in capital and operational expense over two years. Scaling out that data center to 32 servers would double the cost to $375,000 (see Figure 1). Scaling up the servers to 64GB RAM/server would raise the cost to $279,000 (data center costs based on the cost of scaling up a 16-node cluster from 32GB to 64GB per server, and scaling out a 16-node cluster to 32-nodes, two years operational expense).
What does this investment buy you? You get more servers to work on the problem - but performance has not improved significantly because they aren't working together; each server is still working only with its own local memory. By trying to divide and conquer your data set, you've fragmented it. Like fragmented drives, fragmented data sets restrict the flow of data and force data to be replicated across the network. The overhead of drawing data into each server consumes resources that should be focused on one thing - application performance.
By sharing memory, data centers require less memory per server because they have access to a much larger pool of virtualized memory. Memory virtualization also enables fewer servers to accomplish the same level of application performance, meaning less rack space, power consumption, and management staff (see Figure 2).
Additional cache capacity can be added dynamically with no downtime, and application servers can easily connect to virtualized network memory to share and consume data at any time without re-provisioning.
High Availability features eliminate data loss when servers or networks go down by keeping multiple copies of data in the cache and employing persistent writes to comply with certified messaging standards.
In the storage area, SAN and NAS have decoupled storage from computing, but storage is not the place for the active working data set. Storage acceleration can only marginally improve application performance because it connects too far down the stack and is not application-aware (understands state). The millisecond latencies of storage requests are unacceptable bottlenecks for business and mission-critical applications.
In some cases, data center architects have turned to data grids in the search for performance. Data grids impose a high management overhead and performance load and tend to replicate the working data set, rather than truly share it. These solutions are difficult to integrate, debug, and optimize, and remain tightly coupled to your application, reducing flexibility. Architects who have implemented these solutions complain of the "black box" software to which they have tied their applications' performance and disappointing acceleration results.
Memory virtualization has solved the key barrier to increasing the efficiency of existing network resources in order to improve the performance of business-critical applications. This capability decouples the memory from its physical environment, making it a shared resource across the data center or cluster. Addressing today's IT performance challenges, virtualized memory enables new business computing scenarios by eliminating application bottlenecks associated with memory and data sharing. Currently available, memory virtualization is delivering optimized data center utilization, performance and reliability with minimum risk and immediate business results.
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life sett...
Jun. 25, 2016 06:15 PM EDT Reads: 964
There are several IoTs: the Industrial Internet, Consumer Wearables, Wearables and Healthcare, Supply Chains, and the movement toward Smart Grids, Cities, Regions, and Nations. There are competing communications standards every step of the way, a bewildering array of sensors and devices, and an entire world of competing data analytics platforms. To some this appears to be chaos. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, Bradley Holt, Developer Advocate a...
Jun. 25, 2016 05:00 PM EDT Reads: 644
Cognitive Computing is becoming the foundation for a new generation of solutions that have the potential to transform business. Unlike traditional approaches to building solutions, a cognitive computing approach allows the data to help determine the way applications are designed. This contrasts with conventional software development that begins with defining logic based on the current way a business operates. In her session at 18th Cloud Expo, Judith S. Hurwitz, President and CEO of Hurwitz & ...
Jun. 25, 2016 03:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,503
In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Lee Atchison, Principal Cloud Architect and Advocate at New Relic, discussed cloud as a ‘better data center’ and how it adds new capacity (faster) and improves application availability (redundancy). The cloud is a ‘Dynamic Tool for Dynamic Apps’ and resource allocation is an integral part of your application architecture, so use only the resources you need and allocate /de-allocate resources on the fly.
Jun. 25, 2016 02:15 PM EDT Reads: 997
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, wh...
Jun. 25, 2016 01:45 PM EDT Reads: 857
19th Cloud Expo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterpri...
Jun. 25, 2016 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,190
SYS-CON Events announced today that Bsquare has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For more than two decades, Bsquare has helped its customers extract business value from a broad array of physical assets by making them intelligent, connecting them, and using the data they generate to optimize business processes.
Jun. 25, 2016 11:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,150
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 19th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago. All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - comp...
Jun. 25, 2016 11:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,152
Machine Learning helps make complex systems more efficient. By applying advanced Machine Learning techniques such as Cognitive Fingerprinting, wind project operators can utilize these tools to learn from collected data, detect regular patterns, and optimize their own operations. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Stuart Gillen, Director of Business Development at SparkCognition, discussed how research has demonstrated the value of Machine Learning in delivering next generation analytics to imp...
Jun. 25, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 466
There is little doubt that Big Data solutions will have an increasing role in the Enterprise IT mainstream over time. Big Data at Cloud Expo - to be held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA - has announced its Call for Papers is open. Cloud computing is being adopted in one form or another by 94% of enterprises today. Tens of billions of new devices are being connected to The Internet of Things. And Big Data is driving this bus. An exponential increase is...
Jun. 25, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,274
The 19th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Digital Transformation, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportuni...
Jun. 25, 2016 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,217
Cloud computing is being adopted in one form or another by 94% of enterprises today. Tens of billions of new devices are being connected to The Internet of Things. And Big Data is driving this bus. An exponential increase is expected in the amount of information being processed, managed, analyzed, and acted upon by enterprise IT. This amazing is not part of some distant future - it is happening today. One report shows a 650% increase in enterprise data by 2020. Other estimates are even higher....
Jun. 25, 2016 10:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,211
The cloud market growth today is largely in public clouds. While there is a lot of spend in IT departments in virtualization, these aren’t yet translating into a true “cloud” experience within the enterprise. What is stopping the growth of the “private cloud” market? In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Nara Rajagopalan, CEO of Accelerite, explored the challenges in deploying, managing, and getting adoption for a private cloud within an enterprise. What are the key differences between wh...
Jun. 25, 2016 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 652
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 19th International Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world and ThingsExpo Silicon Valley Call for Papers is now open.
Jun. 25, 2016 09:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,078
It is one thing to build single industrial IoT applications, but what will it take to build the Smart Cities and truly society changing applications of the future? The technology won’t be the problem, it will be the number of parties that need to work together and be aligned in their motivation to succeed. In his Day 2 Keynote at @ThingsExpo, Henrik Kenani Dahlgren, Portfolio Marketing Manager at Ericsson, discussed how to plan to cooperate, partner, and form lasting all-star teams to change t...
Jun. 25, 2016 07:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,034
Connected devices and the industrial internet are growing exponentially every year with Cisco expecting 50 billion devices to be in operation by 2020. In this period of growth, location-based insights are becoming invaluable to many businesses as they adopt new connected technologies. Knowing when and where these devices connect from is critical for a number of scenarios in supply chain management, disaster management, emergency response, M2M, location marketing and more. In his session at @Th...
Jun. 25, 2016 07:30 AM EDT Reads: 857
SYS-CON Events announced today that ReadyTalk, a leading provider of online conferencing and webinar services, has been named Vendor Presentation Sponsor at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. ReadyTalk delivers audio and web conferencing services that inspire collaboration and enable the Future of Work for today’s increasingly digital and mobile workforce. By combining intuitive, innovative tec...
Jun. 24, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,326
Amazon has gradually rolled out parts of its IoT offerings, but these are just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to optimizing their backend AWS offerings, Amazon is laying the ground work to be a major force in IoT - especially in the connected home and office. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Kocher, founder and managing director of Grey Heron, explained how Amazon is extending its reach to become a major force in IoT by building on its dominant cloud IoT platform, its Dash Button strat...
Jun. 24, 2016 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,582
industrial company for a multi-year contract initially valued at over $4.0 million. In addition to DataV software, Bsquare will also provide comprehensive systems integration, support and maintenance services. DataV leverages advanced data analytics, predictive reasoning, data-driven diagnostics, and automated orchestration of remediation actions in order to improve asset uptime while reducing service and warranty costs.
Jun. 22, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,348
Vidyo, Inc., has joined the Alliance for Open Media. The Alliance for Open Media is a non-profit organization working to define and develop media technologies that address the need for an open standard for video compression and delivery over the web. As a member of the Alliance, Vidyo will collaborate with industry leaders in pursuit of an open and royalty-free AOMedia Video codec, AV1. Vidyo’s contributions to the organization will bring to bear its long history of expertise in codec technolo...
Jun. 19, 2016 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,241