Click here to close now.

Welcome!

Virtualization Authors: Elizabeth White, Liz McMillan, Pat Romanski, Roger Strukhoff, Alena Prokharchyk

Related Topics: .NET, Open Source, AJAX & REA, Silverlight, Open Web, CRM

.NET: Blog Feed Post

Performance Tuning Windows 2012: Network Subsystem | Part 1

NDIS, the protocol stack, and user mode applications

Offload Capabilities
Offloading tasks can reduce CPU usage on the server, which improves the overall system performance. The network stack in Windows 2012 (and prior versions of the OS) can offload one or more tasks to a network adapter permitted you have an adapter with offload capabilities. The table below lists the details about offload capabilities:

Receive-side scaling (RSS) is a network driver technology that enables the efficient distribution of network receive processing across multiple CPUs in multiprocessor systems.

Checksum calculation

The network stack can offload the calculation and validation of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) checksums on send and receive code paths. It can also offload the calculation and validation of IPv4 and IPv6 checksums on send and receive code paths.

IP security authentication and encryption

The TCP/IP transport layer can offload the calculation and validation of encrypted checksums for authentication headers and Encapsulating Security Payloads (ESPs). The TCP/IP transport layer can also offload the encryption and decryption of ESPs.

Segmentation of large TCP packets

The TCP/IP transport layer supports Large Send Offload v2 (LSOv2). With LSOv2, the TCP/IP transport layer can offload the segmentation of large TCP packets to the hardware.

Receive Segment Coalescing (RSC)

RSC is the ability to group packets together to minimize the header processing that is necessary for the host to perform. A maximum of 64 KB of received payload can be coalesced into a single larger packet for processing.

Receive-Side Scaling (RSS)

Receive-Side Scaling (RSS)
Windows Server 2012 (as well as Windows Server 2008 R2, and Windows Server 2008) supports Receive Side Scaling (RSS). RSS directs network processing to up to one logical processor per core. For example, given a server with Intel Hyper-Threading and 4 cores (8 logical processors), RSS will use no more than 4 logical processors for network processing.
RSS distributes incoming network I/O packets among logical processors so that packets that belong to the same TCP connection are processed on the same logical processor. RSS also load balances UDP unicast and multicast traffic from Windows Server 2012, and it routes related flows (as determined by hashing the source and destination addresses) to the same logical processor, preserving the order of related arrivals. Windows Server 2012 provides the following methods to tune RSS behavior:

· Windows PowerShell: Get-NetAdapterRSS, Set-NetAdapterRSS, Enable-NetAdapterRss, Disable-NetAdapterRss. These cmdlets allow you to view and modify RSS parameters.

· RSS Profiles: Used to determine which logical processors are assigned to which network adapter. Possible profiles are:

o Closest. Logical processor numbers near the network adapter’s base RSS processor are preferred. Windows may rebalance logical processors dynamically based on load.

o ClosestStatic. Logical processor numbers near the network adapter’s base RSS processor are preferred. Windows will not rebalance logical processors dynamically based on load.

o NUMA. Logical processor numbers will tend to be selected on different NUMA nodes to distribute the load. Windows may rebalance logical processors dynamically based on load.

o NUMAStatic. This is the default profile. Logical processor numbers will tend to be selected on different NUMA nodes to distribute the load. Windows will not rebalance logical processors dynamically based on load.

o Conservative: RSS uses as few processors as possible to sustain the load. This option helps reduce the number of interrupts.

You can use the set-netadapterRSS cmdlet to choose how many logical processors can be used for RSS on a per-network adapter basis, the starting offset for the range of logical processors, and which node the network adapter allocates memory from:

· MaxProcessors: Sets the maximum number of RSS processors to be used, ensuring application traffic is bound to a maximum number of processors on an interface.

set-netadapterRSS –Name “Ethernet” –MaxProcessors <value>

· BaseProcessorGroup: Sets the base processor group of a NUMA node, affecting the processor array used by RSS.

set-netadapterRSS –Name “Ethernet” –BaseProcessorGroup <value>

· MaxProcessorGroup: Sets the Max processor group of a NUMA node, affecting the processor array used by RSS.

set-netadapterRSS –Name “Ethernet” –MaxProcessorGroup <value>

· BaseProcessorNumber: Sets the base processor number of a NUMA node, allowing partitioning processors across network adapters and specifying the first logical processor in the range of RSS processors that is assigned to each adapter.

set-netadapterRSS –Name “Ethernet” –BaseProcessorNumber <Byte Value>

· NumaNode: The NUMA node that each network adapter can allocate memory from.

set-netadapterRSS –Name “Ethernet” –NumaNodeID <value>

· NumberofReceiveQueues: If your logical processors seem to be underutilized for receive traffic, you can try increasing the number of RSS queues from the default of 2 to the maximum number supported.

set-netadapterRSS –Name “Ethernet” –NumberOfReceiveQueues <value>

RSS does not provide any interaction with virtual machines, instead you can configure VMQ. RSS can be enabled for virtual machines in the case of SR-IOV because the virtual function driver supports RSS capability. In this case, the guest and the host will have the benefit of RSS. The host however, does not get RSS capability because the virtual switch is enabled with SR-IOV.

Receive-Segment Coalescing (RSC)
Receive Segment Coalescing can improve performance by reducing the number of IP headers that are processed for a given amount of received data.  You should use RSC to tune performance of received data by grouping (or coalescing) smaller packets into larger units. This can reduce latency and increase throughput for received heavy workloads. On network adapters supporting RSC, make sure that it is enabled, unless you have low latency, low throughput networking needs that benefit from RSC being turned off.

In Windows Server 2012 you can use the following PowerShell cmdlets to configure RSC capable adapters: Enable-NetAdapterRsc, Disable-NetRsc, Get-NetAdapterAdvancedProperty, and Set-NetAdapterAdvancedProperty. RSC can be examined using the cmdlets Get-NetAdapterRSC and Get-NetAdapterStatistics. The Get cmdlet shows if RSC is enabled and if TCP enables RSC to be in operational state. In the example above, IPv4 RSC is enabled. To understand failures, you can view the coalesced bytes or exceptions caused by entering the following command:

PS C:\Users\Administrator> $x = Get-NetAdapterStatistics “myAdapter”

PS C:\Users\Administrator> $x.rscstatistics

CoalescedBytes : 0

CoalescedPackets : 0

CoalescingEvents : 0

CoalescingExceptions : 0

RSC and virtualization
If the host adapter is not bound to the virtual switch, RSC is supported on the physical host. If the adapter is bound to the virtual switch, Windows 2012 will disable RSC on the physical host.
RSC can be enabled for a virtual machine when SR-IOV is enabled. In this case, virtual functions will support RSC capability; hence, virtual machines will also get the benefit of RSC.

Network Adapter Resources

A few network adapters actively manage their resources to achieve optimum performance. Several network adapters let the administrator manually configure resources by using the Advanced Networking tab for the adapter. For such adapters, you can set the values of a number of parameters including the number of receive buffers and send buffers.  In Windows Server 2012, you can configure advanced network settings using the following PowerShell cmdlets:

  • Get-NetAdapterAdvancedProperty
  • SetNetAdapterAdvancedProperty
  • Enable-NetAdapter
  • Enable-NetAdapterBinding
  • Enable-NetAdapterChecksumOffload
  • Enable-NetAdapterLso
  • Enable-NetAdapterIPSecOffload
  • Enable-NetAdapterPowerManagemetn
  • Enable-NetAdapterQos
  • Enable-NetAdapterRDMA
  • Enable-NetAdapter
  • Enable-NetAdapterSriov

Message-Signaled Interrupts (MSI/MSI-X)
Network adapters that support MSI/MSI-X can target specific logical processors. If your network adapter also support RSS, then a logical processor can be dedicated to servicing interrupts and deferred procedure calls (DPCs) for a given TCP connection. This will greatly improve performance, by preserving the TCP cache.

Interrupt Moderation
Lastly, we’ll discuss interrupt moderation. Some network adapters expose different interrupt moderation levels, or buffer coalescing parameters, or both. You definitely should consider buffer coalescing when the network adapter does not perform interrupt moderation. Interrupt moderation will reduce CPU utilization because it minimizes the per-buffer processing cost, but you should consider that interrupt-moderation  and buffer coalescing can have a negative impact on latency-sensitive situations. The table below lists the suggested adapter features for various server roles.

Role

Checksum offload

Large Send Offload (LSO)

Receive-side scaling (RSS)

Receive Segment Coalescing (RSC)

File server

X

X

X

X

Web server

X

X

X

Mail server (short-lived connections)

X

X

Database server

X

X

X

FTP server

X

X

X

Media server

X

X

X

These settings serve as guidelines only . Depending on the workload, your network adapter(s), and your specific situation, your experience can be different. In our next article we’ll go deeper into tuning the network adapter and utilizing some of the features we discussed.

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Hovhannes Avoyan

Hovhannes Avoyan is the CEO of Monitis, Inc., a provider of on-demand systems management and monitoring software to 50,000 users spanning small businesses and Fortune 500 companies.

Prior to Monitis, he served as General Manager and Director of Development at prominent web portal Lycos Europe, where he grew the Lycos Armenia group from 30 people to over 200, making it the company's largest development center. Prior to Lycos, Avoyan was VP of Technology at Brience, Inc. (based in San Francisco and acquired by Syniverse), which delivered mobile internet content solutions to companies like Cisco, Ingram Micro, Washington Mutual, Wyndham Hotels , T-Mobile , and CNN. Prior to that, he served as the founder and CEO of CEDIT ltd., which was acquired by Brience. A 24 year veteran of the software industry, he also runs Sourcio cjsc, an IT consulting company and startup incubator specializing in web 2.0 products and open-source technologies.

Hovhannes is a senior lecturer at the American Univeristy of Armenia and has been a visiting lecturer at San Francisco State University. He is a graduate of Bertelsmann University.

@ThingsExpo Stories
BroadSoft on Tuesday announced that it is a recipient of the 2014 Frost & Sullivan Market Leadership Award in the Hosted/Cloud Internet Protocol (IP) Telephony market for Latin America. According to Frost & Sullivan market research, the Latin America (LATAM) hosted/cloud Internet Protocol (IP) telephony market, including integrated unified communications and collaboration (UC&C) applications, is currently experiencing a rapid growth trajectory and is expected to exhibit a tenfold rise in annual revenues in the 2013-2020 period. With more than 600 cloud deployments internationally, BroadSoft w...
SYS-CON Events announced today that StorPool Storage will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. StorPool is distributed storage software that allows service providers, enterprises and other cloud builders to run data storage on standard x86 servers, instead of using expensive and inefficient storage arrays (SAN).
The best mobile applications are augmented by dedicated servers, the Internet and Cloud services. Mobile developers should focus on one thing: writing the next socially disruptive viral app. Thanks to the cloud, they can focus on the overall solution, not the underlying plumbing. From iOS to Android and Windows, developers can leverage cloud services to create a common cross-platform backend to persist user settings, app data, broadcast notifications, run jobs, etc. This session provides a high level technical overview of many cloud services available to mobile app developers, includi...
Temasys has announced senior management additions to its team. Joining are David Holloway as Vice President of Commercial and Nadine Yap as Vice President of Product. Over the past 12 months Temasys has doubled in size as it adds new customers and expands the development of its Skylink platform. Skylink leads the charge to move WebRTC, traditionally seen as a desktop, browser based technology, to become a ubiquitous web communications technology on web and mobile, as well as Internet of Things compatible devices.
GENBAND has announced that SageNet is leveraging the Nuvia platform to deliver Unified Communications as a Service (UCaaS) to its large base of retail and enterprise customers. Nuvia’s cloud-based solution provides SageNet’s customers with a full suite of business communications and collaboration tools. Two large national SageNet retail customers have recently signed up to deploy the Nuvia platform and the company will continue to sell the service to new and existing customers. Nuvia’s capabilities include HD voice, video, multimedia messaging, mobility, conferencing, Web collaboration, deskt...
VoxImplant has announced full WebRTC support in the newest versions of its Android SDK and iOS SDK. The updated SDKs, which enable audio and video calls on mobile devices, are now compatible with the WebRTC standard to allow any mobile app to communicate with WebRTC-enabled browsers, including Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, and, when available, Microsoft Spartan. The WebRTC-updated SDKs represent VoxImplant's continued leadership in simplifying the development of real-time communications (RTC) services for app developers. VoxImplant (built by Zingaya, the real-time communication servi...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Site24x7, the cloud infrastructure monitoring service, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Site24x7 is a cloud infrastructure monitoring service that helps monitor the uptime and performance of websites, online applications, servers, mobile websites and custom APIs. The monitoring is done from 50+ locations across the world and from various wireless carriers, thus providing a global perspective of the end-user experience. Site24x7 supports monitoring H...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Intelligent Systems Services will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Established in 1994, Intelligent Systems Services Inc. is located near Washington, DC, with representatives and partners nationwide. ISS’s well-established track record is based on the continuous pursuit of excellence in designing, implementing and supporting nationwide clients’ mission-critical systems. ISS has completed many successful projects in Healthcare, Commercial, Manufacturing, ...
Sonus Networks introduced the Sonus WebRTC Services Solution, a virtualized Web Real-Time Communications (WebRTC) offer, purpose-built for the Cloud. The WebRTC Services Solution provides signaling from WebRTC-to-WebRTC applications and interworking from WebRTC-to-Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), delivering advanced real-time communications capabilities on mobile applications and on websites, which are accessible via a browser.
SYS-CON Events announced today that B2Cloud, a provider of enterprise resource planning software, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. B2cloud develops the software you need. They have the ideal tools to help you work with your clients. B2Cloud’s main solutions include AGIS – ERP, CLOHC, AGIS – Invoice, and IZUM
SYS-CON Events announced today that Tufin, the market-leading provider of Security Policy Orchestration Solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. As the market leader of Security Policy Orchestration, Tufin automates and accelerates network configuration changes while maintaining security and compliance. Tufin's award-winning Orchestration Suite™ gives IT organizations the power and agility to enforce security policy across complex, multi-vendor enterprise networks. With more than 1...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloudian, Inc., the leading provider of hybrid cloud storage solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Cloudian, Inc., is a Foster City, California - based software company specializing in cloud storage software. The main product is Cloudian, an Amazon S3-compliant cloud object storage platform, the bedrock of cloud computing systems, that enables cloud service providers and enterprises to build reliable, affordable and scalable cloud storage solu...
“With easy-to-use SDKs for Atmel’s platforms, IoT developers can now reap the benefits of realtime communication, and bypass the security pitfalls and configuration complexities that put IoT deployments at risk,” said Todd Greene, founder & CEO of PubNub. PubNub will team with Atmel at CES 2015 to launch full SDK support for Atmel’s MCU, MPU, and Wireless SoC platforms. Atmel developers now have access to PubNub’s secure Publish/Subscribe messaging with guaranteed ¼ second latencies across PubNub’s 14 global points-of-presence. PubNub delivers secure communication through firewalls, proxy ser...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Gridstore™, the leader in hyper-converged infrastructure purpose-built to optimize Microsoft workloads, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Gridstore™ is the leader in hyper-converged infrastructure purpose-built for Microsoft workloads and designed to accelerate applications in virtualized environments. Gridstore’s hyper-converged infrastructure is the industry’s first all flash version of HyperConverged Appliances that include both compute and storag...
SYS-CON Events announced today that IDenticard will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. IDenticard™ is the security division of Brady Corp (NYSE: BRC), a $1.5 billion manufacturer of identification products. We have small-company values with the strength and stability of a major corporation. IDenticard offers local sales, support and service to our customers across the United States and Canada. Our partner network encompasses some 300 of the world's leading systems integrators and security s...
Containers and microservices have become topics of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities. Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming 16th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York June 9-11 will find fresh new content in a new track called PaaS | Containers & Microservices Containers are not being considered for the first time by the cloud community, but a current era of re-consideration has pushed them to the top of the cloud agenda. With the launch of Docker's initial release in March of 2013, interest was revved up several notches. Then late last...
So I guess we’ve officially entered a new era of lean and mean. I say this with the announcement of Ubuntu Snappy Core, “designed for lightweight cloud container hosts running Docker and for smart devices,” according to Canonical. “Snappy Ubuntu Core is the smallest Ubuntu available, designed for security and efficiency in devices or on the cloud.” This first version of Snappy Ubuntu Core features secure app containment and Docker 1.6 (1.5 in main release), is available on public clouds, and for ARM and x86 devices on several IoT boards. It’s a Trend! This announcement comes just as...
SYS-CON Events announced today the IoT Bootcamp – Jumpstart Your IoT Strategy, being held June 9–10, 2015, in conjunction with 16th Cloud Expo and Internet of @ThingsExpo at the Javits Center in New York City. This is your chance to jumpstart your IoT strategy. Combined with real-world scenarios and use cases, the IoT Bootcamp is not just based on presentations but includes hands-on demos and walkthroughs. We will introduce you to a variety of Do-It-Yourself IoT platforms including Arduino, Raspberry Pi, BeagleBone, Spark and Intel Edison. You will also get an overview of cloud technologies s...
“In the past year we've seen a lot of stabilization of WebRTC. You can now use it in production with a far greater degree of certainty. A lot of the real developments in the past year have been in things like the data channel, which will enable a whole new type of application," explained Peter Dunkley, Technical Director at Acision, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Health care systems across the globe are under enormous strain, as facilities reach capacity and costs continue to rise. M2M and the Internet of Things have the potential to transform the industry through connected health solutions that can make care more efficient while reducing costs. In fact, Vodafone's annual M2M Barometer Report forecasts M2M applications rising to 57 percent in health care and life sciences by 2016. Lively is one of Vodafone's health care partners, whose solutions enable older adults to live independent lives while staying connected to loved ones. M2M will continue to gr...