|By Toddy Mladenov||
|January 23, 2013 09:00 AM EST||
If you ask five different experts you will get maybe five different opinions what cloud computing is. And all five may be correct. The best definition of cloud computing that I have ever found is the National Institute of Standards and Technology Definition of Cloud Computing. According to NIST the cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models. In this post I will look at the essential characteristics only, and compare to the traditional computing models; in future posts I will look at the service and deployment models.
Because computing always implies resources (CPU, memory, storage, networking etc.), the premise of cloud is an improved way to provision, access and manage those resources. Let's look at each essential characteristic of the cloud:
Essentially what this means is that you (as a consumer of the resources) can provision the resources at any time you want to, and you can do this without assistance from the resource provider.
Here is an example. In the old days if your application needed additional computing power to support growing load, the process you normally used to go through is briefly as follows: call the hardware vendor and order new machines; once the hardware is received you need to install the Operating System, connect the machine to the network, configure any firewall rules etc.; next, you need to install your application and add the machine to the pool of other machines that already handle the load for your application. This is a very simplistic view of the process but it still requires you to interact with many internal and external teams in order to complete it - those can be but are not limited to hardware vendors, IT administrators, network administrators, database administrators, operations etc. As a result it can take weeks or even months to get the hardware ready to use.
Thanks to the cloud computing though you can reduce this process to minutes. All this lengthy process comes to a click of a button or a call to the provider's API and you can have the additional resources available within minutes without. Why is this important?
Because in the past the process involved many steps and usually took months, application owners often used to over provision the environments that host their application. Of course this results in huge capital expenditures at the beginning of the project, resource underutilization throughout the project, and huge losses if the project doesn't succeed. With cloud computing though you are in control and you can provision only enough resources to support your current load.
Broad Network Access
Well, this is not something new - we've had the Internet for more than 20 years already and the cloud did not invent this. And although NIST talks that the cloud promotes the use of heterogeneous clients (like smartphones, tablets etc.) I do think this would be possible even without the cloud. However there is one important thing that in my opinion the cloud enabled that would be very hard to do with the traditional model. The cloud made it easier to bring your application closer to your users around the world. "What is the difference?", you will ask. "Isn't it that the same as Internet or the Web?" Yes and no. Thanks to the Internet you were able to make your application available to users around the world but there were significant differences in the user experience in different parts of the world. Let's say that your company is based on California and you had a very popular application with millions of users in US. Because you are based in California all servers that host your application are either in your basement or in a datacenter that is nearby so that you can easily go and fix any hardware issues that may occur. Now, think about the experience that your users will get across the country! People from East Coast will see slower response times and possibly more errors than people from the West. If you wanted to expand globally then this problems will be amplified. The way to solve this issue was to deploy servers on the East Cost and in any other part of the world that you want to expand to.
With cloud computing though you can just provision new resources in the region you want to expand to, deploy your application and start serving your users.
It again comes to the cost that you incur by deploying new data centers around the world versus just using resources on demand and releasing them if you are not successful. Because the cloud is broadly accessible you can rely on having the ability to provision resources in different parts of the world.
One can argue whether resource pooling is good or bad. The part that brings most concerns among users is the colocation of application on the same hardware or on the same virtual machine. Very often you can hear that this compromises security, can impact your application's performance and even bring it down. Those have been real concerns in the past but with the advancement in virtualization technology and the latest application runtimes you can consider them outdated. That doesn't mean that you should not think about security and performance when you design your application.
The good side of the resource pooling is that it enabled cloud providers to achieve higher application density on single hardware and much higher resource utilization (sometimes going up to 75% to 80% compared to the 10%-12% in the traditional approach). As a result of that the price for resource usage continues to fall. Another benefit of the resource pooling is that resources can easily be shifted where the demand is without the need for the customer to know where those resources come from and where are they located. Once again, as a customer you can request from the pool as many resources as you need at certain time; once you are done utilizing those you can return them to the pool so that somebody else can use them. Because you as a customer are not aware what the size of the resource pool is, your perception is that the resources are unlimited. In contrast in the traditional approach the application owners have always been constrained by the resources available on limited number of machines (i.e. the ones that they have ordered and installed in their own datacenter).
Elasticity is tightly related to the pooling of resources and allows you to easily expand and contract the amount of resources your application is using. The best part here is that this expansion and contraction can be automated and thus save you money when your application is under light load and doesn't need many resources.
In order to achieve this elasticity in the traditional case the process would look something like this: when the load on your application increases you need to power up more machines and add them to the pool of servers that run your application; when the load on your application decreases you start removing servers from the pool and then powering them off. Of course we all know that nobody is doing this because it is much more expensive to constantly add and remove machines from the pool and thus everybody runs the maximum number of machines all the time with very low utilization. And we all know that if the resource planning is not done right and the load on the application is so heavy that the maximum number of machines cannot handle it, the result is increase of errors, dropped request and unhappy customers.
In the cloud scenario where you can add and remove resource within minutes you don't need to spend a great deal of time doing capacity planning. You can start very small, monitor the usage of your application and add more and more resources as you grow.
In order to make money the cloud providers need the ability to measure the resource usage. Because in most cases the cloud monetization is based on the pay-per-use model they need to be able to give the customers break down of how much and what resources they have used. As mentioned in the NIST definition this allows transparency for both the provider and the consumer of the service.
The ability to measure the resource usage is important in to you, the consumer of the service, in several different ways. First, based on historical data you can budget for future growth of your application. It also allows you to better budget new projects that deliver similar applications. It is also important for application architects and developers to optimize their applications for lower resource utilization (at the end everything comes to dollars on the monthly bill).
On the other side it helps the cloud providers to better optimize their datacenter resources and provide higher density per hardware. It also helps them with the capacity planning so that they don't end up with 100% utilization and no excess capacity to cover unexpected consumer growth.
Compare this to the traditional approach where you never knew how much of your compute capacity is utilized, or how much of your network capacity is used, or how much of your storage is occupied. In rare cases companies were able to collect such statistics but almost never those have been used to provide financial benefit for the enterprise.
Having those five essential characteristics you should be able to recognize the "true" cloud offerings available on the market. In the next posts I will go over the service and deployment models for cloud computing.
SYS-CON Events announced today that IoT Now has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6–8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. IoT Now explores the evolving opportunities and challenges facing CSPs, and it passes on some lessons learned from those who have taken the first steps in next-gen IoT services.
Mar. 26, 2017 03:30 AM EDT Reads: 3,835
SYS-CON Events announced today that Interoute, owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017 at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Interoute is the owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform which encompasses 12 data centers, 14 virtual data centers and 31 colocation centers, with connections to 195 add...
Mar. 26, 2017 03:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,023
SYS-CON Events announced today that MobiDev, a client-oriented software development company, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MobiDev is a software company that develops and delivers turn-key mobile apps, websites, web services, and complex softw...
Mar. 26, 2017 01:45 AM EDT Reads: 3,718
DevOps is often described as a combination of technology and culture. Without both, DevOps isn't complete. However, applying the culture to outdated technology is a recipe for disaster; as response times grow and connections between teams are delayed by technology, the culture will die. A Nutanix Enterprise Cloud has many benefits that provide the needed base for a true DevOps paradigm.
Mar. 26, 2017 12:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,894
What sort of WebRTC based applications can we expect to see over the next year and beyond? One way to predict development trends is to see what sorts of applications startups are building. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Arin Sime, founder of WebRTC.ventures, will discuss the current and likely future trends in WebRTC application development based on real requests for custom applications from real customers, as well as other public sources of information,
Mar. 26, 2017 12:15 AM EDT Reads: 752
As businesses adopt functionalities in cloud computing, it’s imperative that IT operations consistently ensure cloud systems work correctly – all of the time, and to their best capabilities. In his session at @BigDataExpo, Bernd Harzog, CEO and founder of OpsDataStore, will present an industry answer to the common question, “Are you running IT operations as efficiently and as cost effectively as you need to?” He will expound on the industry issues he frequently came up against as an analyst, and...
Mar. 26, 2017 12:00 AM EDT Reads: 4,132
Keeping pace with advancements in software delivery processes and tooling is taxing even for the most proficient organizations. Point tools, platforms, open source and the increasing adoption of private and public cloud services requires strong engineering rigor - all in the face of developer demands to use the tools of choice. As Agile has settled in as a mainstream practice, now DevOps has emerged as the next wave to improve software delivery speed and output. To make DevOps work, organization...
Mar. 26, 2017 12:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,737
Apache Hadoop is emerging as a distributed platform for handling large and fast incoming streams of data. Predictive maintenance, supply chain optimization, and Internet-of-Things analysis are examples where Hadoop provides the scalable storage, processing, and analytics platform to gain meaningful insights from granular data that is typically only valuable from a large-scale, aggregate view. One architecture useful for capturing and analyzing streaming data is the Lambda Architecture, represent...
Mar. 25, 2017 08:45 PM EDT Reads: 6,020
My team embarked on building a data lake for our sales and marketing data to better understand customer journeys. This required building a hybrid data pipeline to connect our cloud CRM with the new Hadoop Data Lake. One challenge is that IT was not in a position to provide support until we proved value and marketing did not have the experience, so we embarked on the journey ourselves within the product marketing team for our line of business within Progress. In his session at @BigDataExpo, Sum...
Mar. 25, 2017 08:45 PM EDT Reads: 2,797
Things are changing so quickly in IoT that it would take a wizard to predict which ecosystem will gain the most traction. In order for IoT to reach its potential, smart devices must be able to work together. Today, there are a slew of interoperability standards being promoted by big names to make this happen: HomeKit, Brillo and Alljoyn. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Adam Justice, vice president and general manager of Grid Connect, will review what happens when smart devices don’t work togethe...
Mar. 25, 2017 06:15 PM EDT Reads: 2,575
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ocean9will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Ocean9 provides cloud services for Backup, Disaster Recovery (DRaaS) and instant Innovation, and redefines enterprise infrastructure with its cloud native subscription offerings for mission critical SAP workloads.
Mar. 25, 2017 05:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,963
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Lachapelle, CEO of the Professional Evaluation and Certification Board (PECB), will provide an overview of various initiatives to certifiy the security of connected devices and future trends in ensuring public trust of IoT. Eric Lachapelle is the Chief Executive Officer of the Professional Evaluation and Certification Board (PECB), an international certification body. His role is to help companies and individuals to achieve professional, accredited and worldw...
Mar. 25, 2017 04:00 PM EDT Reads: 557
SYS-CON Events announced today that Technologic Systems Inc., an embedded systems solutions company, will exhibit at SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Technologic Systems is an embedded systems company with headquarters in Fountain Hills, Arizona. They have been in business for 32 years, helping more than 8,000 OEM customers and building over a hundred COTS products that have never been discontinued. Technologic Systems’ pr...
Mar. 25, 2017 01:45 PM EDT Reads: 3,314
SYS-CON Events announced today that CA Technologies has been named “Platinum Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. CA Technologies helps customers succeed in a future where every business – from apparel to energy – is being rewritten by software. From ...
Mar. 25, 2017 01:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,751
The taxi industry never saw Uber coming. Startups are a threat to incumbents like never before, and a major enabler for startups is that they are instantly “cloud ready.” If innovation moves at the pace of IT, then your company is in trouble. Why? Because your data center will not keep up with frenetic pace AWS, Microsoft and Google are rolling out new capabilities In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Don Browning, VP of Cloud Architecture at Turner, will posit that disruption is inevitable for c...
Mar. 25, 2017 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 2,058
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloudistics, an on-premises cloud computing company, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Cloudistics delivers a complete public cloud experience with composable on-premises infrastructures to medium and large enterprises. Its software-defined technology natively converges network, storage, compute, virtualization, and management into a ...
Mar. 25, 2017 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,910
The explosion of new web/cloud/IoT-based applications and the data they generate are transforming our world right before our eyes. In this rush to adopt these new technologies, organizations are often ignoring fundamental questions concerning who owns the data and failing to ask for permission to conduct invasive surveillance of their customers. Organizations that are not transparent about how their systems gather data telemetry without offering shared data ownership risk product rejection, regu...
Mar. 25, 2017 12:30 PM EDT Reads: 5,072
SYS-CON Events announced today that Loom Systems will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Founded in 2015, Loom Systems delivers an advanced AI solution to predict and prevent problems in the digital business. Loom stands alone in the industry as an AI analysis platform requiring no prior math knowledge from operators, leveraging the existing staff to succeed in the digital era. With offices in S...
Mar. 25, 2017 12:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,207
SYS-CON Events announced today that CrowdReviews.com has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6–8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. CrowdReviews.com is a transparent online platform for determining which products and services are the best based on the opinion of the crowd. The crowd consists of Internet users that have experienced products and services first-hand and have an interest in letting other potential buyers...
Mar. 25, 2017 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 3,571
SYS-CON Events announced today that T-Mobile will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. As America's Un-carrier, T-Mobile US, Inc., is redefining the way consumers and businesses buy wireless services through leading product and service innovation. The Company's advanced nationwide 4G LTE network delivers outstanding wireless experiences to 67.4 million customers who are unwilling to compromise on ...
Mar. 25, 2017 10:45 AM EDT Reads: 2,123