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Pour en finir avec l’Informatique fantôme : les 3 B (Première partie)

 

GostL’informatique fantôme (Ghost IT en anglais) ? Ce sont toutes les infrastructures, les applications informatiques déployées dans les entreprises hors de la vue de la DSI, sans son accord.

Est-ce que l’informatique fantôme est un phénomène récent ? Non, bien sûr, mais nous avons assisté à une accélération depuis une dizaine d’années avec l’arrivée d’outils logiciels et matériels puissants, légers et faciles à déployer.

Ce que je vous propose, aujourd’hui, c’est de réconcilier les directions métiers et les informaticiens en remplaçant l’informatique fantôme, source permanente de conflits et d’incompréhension, par.. l’informatique flexible, mise en œuvre de manière harmonieuse et efficace, les équipes informatiques et les métiers collaborant de manière transparente, pour que l’informatique des entreprises soit plus performante et économique.

Une utopie ? Non, comme je vais vous l’expliquer.

 

Informatique fantôme : état des lieux

La société Netskope publie tous les trimestres un rapport très instructif sur le déploiement du Cloud Computing et des applications SaaS dans les entreprises ; ses dernières mesures ont été faites à la fin de l’année 2013.

Netskope More Cloud Apps than DSI thinkCe graphique, tiré de leur étude de janvier 2014, montre que les équipes informatiques sous-estiment beaucoup le nombre d’applications SaaS utilisées par leur entreprise. Ce nombre approche des 400 alors que leurs estimations sont de 40 à 50, un ordre de grandeur de différence !

La question qui fâche : pourquoi l’informatique fantôme c’est-elle développée aussi fortement dans toutes les entreprises, quelles que soient leur taille ou leur secteur d’activité ?

Je n’obtiens pas les mêmes réponses quand je pose la question aux informaticiens et aux directions métiers !

  • Pour mes amis informaticiens, ce sont des utilisateurs dissidents, indisciplinés, désobéissants, qui se moquent des contraintes de sécurité... qui ne respectent pas les directives et les choix de la DSI.
  • Pour les directions métiers, ce sont les contraintes irréalistes de la DSI, leurs schémas directeurs, les temps de réponse démesurément longs, leurs consignes de sécurité déraisonnables qui les « obligent » à recourir à l’informatique fantôme.

J’ai une bonne nouvelle : informaticiens et directions métiers peuvent se réconcilier, travailler ensemble et remplacer l’informatique fantôme par ... l’informatique flexible.


Informatique flexible : les fondamentaux

Flexible ITEntre des outils bureautiques universels, peu structurés, et des applications informatiques classiques, très structurées, il existe un très grand champ médian où l’on trouve des demandes universelles pour des usages « semi-structurés ».

L’excellente nouvelle ? Trois familles d’outils, bien sur tous disponibles dans un monde Cloud et mobile, permettent aujourd’hui de répondre à cette demande :

  • BPaaS (Business Process as a Service) : des processus métiers, clefs en main.
  • BPM (Business Process Modeling) : Des outils permettant, très rapidement de modéliser les processus simples que l’on rencontre dans toutes les entreprises.
  • BI (Business Intelligence) : c’est le monde du décisionnel, de l’analyse des données.

Ce sont ces trois B, BPaaS, BI et BPM qui ont donné leur nom à ce billet.

En utilisant intelligemment ces trois familles de solutions, il devient possible d’éradiquer cette dangereuse épidémie d’informatique fantôme.

 

BPaaS (Business Process as a Service)

Logo BPaaSLes éditeurs de solutions BPaaS proposent aux entreprises des processus simples, prêts à l’emploi, et qui demandent très peu de configuration. La frontière avec les solutions SaaS n’est pas très étanche ; s’il faut souvent quelques mois pour déployer des logiciels SaaS tels que Saleforce ou TalentSoft, une solution BPaaS demande, au plus, quelques jours pour être opérationnelle.

Il existe de très nombreuses offres BPaaS, et j’en ai souvent parlé dans ce blog

Je vais en citer seulement deux dans ce billet :

  • Interview Jason Fried BasecampBasecamp : Basecamp est le gestionnaire de projets légers le plus simple à utiliser que je connaisse. Le fondateur de cette société, Jason Fried, a choisi de rester focalisé sur une seule application, mais de faire très bien son métier, comme il l’explique dans cet entretien récent. Beaucoup d’autres éditeurs ont voulu se diversifier, sans succès, et auraient intérêt à méditer cet entretien.
  • SurveyMonkey : C’est le BPaaS dont ont besoin toutes les entreprises qui réalisent des enquêtes, en interne ou vers leurs clients externes. Quelles que soient la complexité ou la variété des questions que vous souhaitez poser, SurveyMonkey répond à vos besoins. Si ce n’est pas le cas, vous faites certainement fausse route en imaginant des enquêtes déraisonnables.

Ces solutions BPaaS ont toutes les mêmes avantages :

  • Déploiement immédiat.
  • Capacité par les métiers de les utiliser sans avoir besoin de se faire aider par la DSI.
  • Des prix très bas : la version la plus chère de Basecamp coûte 3000 $ par an et celle de SurveyMonkey, 800 € par an, pour un usage illimité et un nombre d’utilisateurs illimités.

Survey Monkey prix France

 

Je propose à toutes les DSI de prendre immédiatement les décisions suivantes : 

  • Signer un contrat avec quelques éditeurs BPaaS tels que Basecamp et SurveyMonkey.
  • Mettre ces offres sur leur place de marché interne.
  • Ne pas les facturer en interne en « offrant » ces solutions à tous les métiers.
  • Assurer la promotion interne de ces solutions BPaaS.

DPC WIn-WIn 62841550Ceci leur permettra d’améliorer très vite leur image à l’intérieur de l’entreprise, de réduire la probabilité que d’autres outils équivalents soient utilisés et réduira le volume d’informatique fantôme.

Comme toutes les solutions d’informatique flexible, le BPaaS permet de créer des situations « gagnant-gagnant » entre les métiers et les DSI ; il serait vraiment dommage de ne pas en profiter.

Dans la deuxième partie de cette série, j’aborderai les thèmes BPM et BI.

  

 

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Louis Nauges

Louis Naugès is Founder & President of Revevol, the first European Consulting organization 100% dedicated to SaaS and Cloud Computing. He has 30 years of IT experience. Very few people in Europe have his knowledge and expertise in Cloud & SaaS technologies and applications. He works directly with CIOs of very large organizations. Revevol is the first EMEA distributor of Google Apps and the largest worldwide organization deploying Google Apps is one of Revevol's clients.

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